26 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Last Updated on June 16, 2023 by April

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Looking for some popular types of Philodendron? You’re in luck because this wildly popular plant has many varieties with a cult following.

Philodendrons are a diverse group of tropical plants belonging to the family Araceae, with over 400 species known to exist. These versatile and adaptable plants can be found in various shapes, sizes, and growth habits, making them a popular choice for indoor and outdoor gardens worldwide. The different types of Philodendron can be broadly divided into two categories: vining and self-heading (non-climbing) species.

Vining Philodendrons exhibit a climbing growth habit, often requiring support as they ascend. These types generally exhibit slender stems and elongated, heart-shaped leaves.

On the other hand, self-heading varieties of Philodendron are characterized by their bushy, upright growth patterns, with a more compact appearance and large, deeply lobed leaves. Both categories have unique aesthetic and cultivation requirements, catering to various garden styles and indoor spaces.

When growing Philodendrons, it is crucial to consider their mature height and spread to ensure adequate space is available for healthy plant development. Soil pH preferences range from slightly acidic to neutral (6.0-7.0), providing a fostering environment for optimum growth.

These plants typically require well-draining soil and moderate to high humidity levels, with watering needs varying depending on the type and environment. Consistent and appropriate care will enable these captivating plants to thrive, enriching the landscapes and interiors in which they reside.

Popular Types of Philodendron Plants

Philodendron Brandtianum

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Philodendron Brandtianum, also known as Silver Leaf Philodendron, is a popular trailing plant with stunning silver patterns on heart-shaped leaves. It prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.5 and requires moderate water, allowing the top inch of soil to dry before watering. The mature height of this philodendron usually reaches 4-6 feet.

Philodendron Brazil

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Philodendron Brazil is an attractive, easy-to-grow plant with green and yellow variegated leaves. This fast-growing variety prefers a well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0 and moderate water. It reaches a mature height of 3-6 feet, making it an ideal indoor plant.

Philodendron Burle Marx

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Named after the famous Brazilian landscape architect, Roberto Burle Marx, this low-growing, clump-forming plant produces glossy, heart-shaped leaves. It thrives in well-draining soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5 and requires regular watering. The mature height and spread are both about 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Camposportoanum

This rare philodendron species has dark green, elongated leaves and thick aerial roots. It prefers well-draining soil, a pH of 5.0-7.0, and consistent watering. Philodendron Camposportoanum typically reaches a mature height of 4-6 feet.

Philodendron Erubescens

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Also known as the Blushing or Red-Leaf Philodendron, Erubescens has dark green leaves with hints of red. It requires well-draining soil, a pH of 6.1-7.5, and consistent moisture. The mature height can range from 3-10 feet, and the spread is about 2-6 feet.

Philodendron Hastatum

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

The Philodendron Hastatum, or Silver Sword Philodendron, has unique silvery-blue leaves. It prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0 and evenly moist conditions. The mature height is about 3-5 feet, with a similar spread.

Philodendron Gloriosum x McColley hybrid

This beautiful hybrid has velvety leaves with contrasting white veins. It requires a well-draining soil, a pH of 5.5-7.0, and consistent moisture. The mature height and spread are both around 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Moonlight

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Philodendron Moonlight is a compact, upright plant with bright, lime-green leaves. It prefers well-draining soil, a pH of 6.0-6.5, and moderate watering. The mature height of the plant is around 2-3 feet, with a spread of 1-2 feet.

Philodendron Hederaceum

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

Also known as the Heartleaf Philodendron, this trailing plant has heart-shaped leaves and is a popular indoor plant. It thrives in well-draining soil with a pH of 6.1-7.8, and requires moderate watering. The mature height is about 4-6 feet.

Philodendron Plowmanii

25 Types of Philodendron: A Beloved Houseplant of Gardeners

This unique plant has large, round leaves with prominent veins and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0. The mature height is usually around 2-3 feet, with a similar spread.

Philodendron Pedatum

Philodendron Pedatum, also known as Oak Leaf Philodendron, is a climbing species with deeply lobed leaves. It prefers well-draining soil, a pH of 5.1-6.0, and consistent moisture. The mature height can range from 6-10 feet with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Rugosum

This rare species, also known as the Pigskin Philodendron, has thick, textured leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The mature height is around 2-4 feet, with a spread of 1-2 feet.

Philodendron Hope Selloum

Philodendron Hope Selloum, also called Lacy Tree Philodendron, has large, deeply lobed leaves and prefers moist, well-draining soil with a pH of 6.1-7.8. The mature height is typically about 5-6 feet, with a spread of 4-5 feet.

Philodendron Imperial Green

Philodendron Imperial Green is a compact, low-growing plant with large, glossy green leaves. It prefers well-draining soil, a pH of 6.0-6.5, and consistent moisture. The mature height and spread are both around 2-4 feet.

Philodendron Elegans

This rare plant has deeply lobed, dark green leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 5.0-7.5. The mature height of Philodendron Elegans is around 4-6 feet, with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Domesticum

Philodendron Domesticum is a large, climbing plant with heart-shaped leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.1-7.8. The mature height is typically around 10-15 feet, with a spread of 2-6 feet.

Philodendron Jose Buono

This rare species features large, variegated leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.5. The mature height is about 4-6 feet, with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Lacerum

Philodendron Lacerum has long, slender leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0. The mature height is typically 3-5 feet, with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Verrucosum

This striking species has velvety leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0. The mature height is usually around 3-6 feet, with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Hederaceum Lemon Lime

This vibrant variety features bright, lemon-lime colored leaves and prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.1-7.8. The mature height is typically around 3-6 feet, with a spread of 2-3 feet.

Philodendron Melanochrysum

Philodendron Melanochrysum, also known as black-gold Philodendron, is a rare type of vining Philodendron that has become popular as a houseplant due to its gorgeous foliage. Its velvet leaves come in shades of dark green with brilliantly contrasted yellow veins and can get as large as 24 inches long.

This plant is endemic to the wet Andean foothills of Colombia, growing at approximately 500m above sea level in the provinces of ChocΓ³ and Antioquia.

Philodendron Micans

Philodendron Micans is an evergreen plant that is mostly known for its toxin-removing nature from the air. It has velvety, heart-shaped leaves that are native to the Americas and the Caribbean. This plant is a small spaced plant that can grow to be about 3-6 feet tall, and it is often grown as a trailing plant.

Philodendron Scandens

Philodendron scandens is a popular species of Philodendron that is commonly known as the sweetheart plant. It is a climbing plant that can grow up to 20 feet in length, and it has heart-shaped leaves that are dark green in color. This plant is native to the tropical rainforests of South America and is often grown as a houseplant due to its ease of care and attractive foliage.

Philodendron Erubescens x Philodendron Tortum

Philodendron Painted Lady is a hybrid plant that is a cross between Philodendron erubescens and Philodendron Tortum. It has large, heart-shaped leaves that are green with pink and cream-colored variegation. This plant is native to South America and is often grown as a houseplant due to its attractive foliage.

Philodendron Erubescens x Philodendron Bipinnatifidum

Philodendron Red Emerald is a hybrid plant that is a cross between Philodendron erubescens and Philodendron bipinnatifidum. It has large, dark green leaves that are deeply lobed and have a red undersurface. This plant is native to South America and is often grown as a houseplant due to its striking foliage.

Overview of Philodendrons

Araceae Family

Philodendrons belong to the Araceae family, a diverse group of flowering plants that thrive in both indoor and outdoor environments. They are characterized by their large, showy leaves and are popular as houseplants for their ability to adapt to a wide range of conditions.

Genus and Distribution

Philodendron is a large genus primarily found in South America, particularly in tropical rainforests. There are over 400 species of Philodendron, each varying in shape, size, and color of leaves depending on its native environment. Some common characteristics of Philodendron plants include:

  • Leaf shape: Ovate or pinnatifid, with some species resembling palm blades
  • Mature height: Varies depending on the species; some indoor varieties grow up to 2-3 feet while others may reach 10 feet or more in their natural habitat
  • Mature spread: Typically 2-3 feet for indoor plants, but can be larger for outdoor species
  • Soil pH preference: Slightly acidic to neutral, with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.0
  • Water requirements: Consistent moisture with well-draining soil, but able to tolerate brief periods of drought

Philodendrons are capable of growing well in normal to warm indoor temperatures (24-27ΒΊC or 75-80ΒΊF). They can be found in various forms, such as climbing, vining, and self-heading types, which makes them versatile for different spaces in a home or garden. Although they are fairly low-maintenance, it is crucial to provide appropriate care to ensure their healthy growth and prevent issues such as Philodendron-induced dermatitis.

Classification of Philodendrons

Climbing Philodendrons

Climbing Philodendrons, also known as vining philodendrons, are a group of plants characterized by their long, trailing stems and ability to climb up surfaces.

These plants prefer a moist, well-draining soil and can adapt to a range of soil pH preferences, typically within the range of 6.0 to 7.5. Water requirements for climbing philodendrons are moderate, with a need for consistent moisture but not excessively wet conditions.

Mature height for these vining plants varies depending on the species and cultivar, but many can reach several feet in length. Some popular climbing philodendron species include:

  • Philodendron hederaceum (Heartleaf Philodendron): A popular indoor plant with heart-shaped leaves and long, trailing stems.
  • Philodendron scandens (Sweetheart Vine): Known for its glossy, green foliage and easy-to-grow nature.

Non-Climbing Philodendrons

Non-climbing philodendrons, also referred to as self-heading philodendrons or non-vining philodendrons, are characterized by their more upright, bushy growth habit. These plants typically display large, lobed leaves and do not require support for growth.

Similar to their climbing counterparts, non-climbing philodendrons prefer a moist, well-draining soil and a pH range between 6.0 and 7.5. Their water requirements are also moderate, with an emphasis on consistent moisture levels.

Mature height and spread for these bushy plants can vary greatly depending on the species and cultivar. Some popular non-climbing philodendron species include:

  • Philodendron bipinnatifidum (Lacy Tree Philodendron): Often reaching a height and spread of 6-8 feet, this plant boasts large, deeply lobed leaves.
  • Philodendron selloum (Hope Philodendron): With a similar appearance to the Lacy Tree Philodendron, this plant features large, glossy leaves and a more compact growth habit.

Both climbing and non-climbing philodendrons are versatile and adaptable plants, making them popular choices for a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. Whether the preference is for a vining plant that cascades down a bookshelf or a statement-making bushy plant with bold foliage, the philodendron genus offers a diverse selection to create visual interest and enhance any space.

Philodendron Care and Requirements

Light Requirements

Philodendrons thrive in bright, indirect light. They can tolerate low light conditions, but their growth may be slower and leaves might become less vibrant. Avoid placing them in direct sunlight, as it can cause the leaves to scorch and turn yellow.

Watering and Humidity

These houseplants require consistent watering to maintain their health. Allow the top inch of the soil to dry out before you water them thoroughly. Over-watering can lead to root rot and damage the plant. Philodendrons appreciate high humidity levels, so it’s a good idea to mist their leaves regularly or place them on a tray filled with pebbles and water to increase the humidity around them.

Soil and Fertilizer

A well-draining soil is essential for philodendrons to avoid excess water retention that may lead to root rot. A mix of peat moss, vermiculite, and perlite works well for these plants. They benefit from regular fertilization; use a balanced houseplant fertilizer every four to six weeks during the growing season.

Soil ComponentProportion
Peat Moss1/3
Vermiculite1/3
Perlite1/3

Pest Control

Philodendrons are susceptible to common houseplant pests such as spider mites, mealybugs, and scale insects. To manage these pests, avoid over-watering and maintain adequate humidity levels. If needed, apply an insecticidal soap or neem oil to control the infestation.

Pruning

Regular pruning is necessary to maintain the shape and size of your philodendron. Remove any yellow or damaged leaves, and trim back any overly long or crowded stems. This will not only improve the plant’s appearance but also promote new growth.

In summary, proper philodendron care involves providing bright, indirect light, consistent watering, high humidity, well-draining soil, regular fertilization, pest control, and pruning. By following these guidelines, your philodendron will flourish indoors and provide an attractive addition to your home.

Philodendron Growth and Propagation

Size and Shape

Philodendrons are a diverse genus of plants with over 500 species, including cultivars that come in various sizes and shapes. The size of these plants can vary from small, compact varieties suitable for containers, to large specimens that can climb or be grown as indoor plants. A mature philodendron species’ height can range from 1 foot (30 cm) in smaller varieties, up to 10 feet (3 meters) in larger specimens, while the mature spread can vary from 2 feet (60 cm) to 8 feet (2.4 meters).

These plants typically have leaves with different shapes, including lobed, pinnate, and oval forms. Many philodendron species and cultivars display beautiful foliage, making them ideal candidates for hanging baskets, totems, and lush displays in indoor growing conditions.

Propagation Techniques

Philodendron propagation can be done through various methods, including cutting, layering, and in vitro techniques. Most species are propagated during their growing season for optimal success.

Cuttings: To propagate using cuttings, select a healthy stem with at least one leaf and remove it close to the base of the plant. The small brown nubs, or aerial roots, can be placed in a container filled with moist, well-draining soil, ensuring proper care and humidity.

Layering: Layering is another popular method for philodendron propagation. This technique involves bending a longer stem to reach the soil without removing it from the parent plant. The section of the stem touching the soil should be slightly wounded so new roots can form. Once roots have developed, the new plant can be separated from the parent plant.

In vitro propagation, such as micropropagation, has also been used for some Philodendron species, including Philodendron bipinnatifidum, Phildendron erubescens ‘Pink Princess’, and Philodendron tuxtlanum. This method allows for rapid multiplication of disease-free plants under sterile conditions.

For optimal growth and health, philodendrons prefer a soil pH of 6.0-7.0 and require consistent watering, although they can tolerate short periods of drought. Be mindful not to overwater, as this can lead to root rot.

Philodendrons are known by alternative names, such as Philodendron selloum and Philodendron bipinnatifidum for the lacy tree philodendron, and Philodendron erubescens for the pink princess variety. Regardless of the specific species or cultivar, philodendrons have proven to be unique and adaptable plants that can offer a touch of nature to both outdoor and indoor environments.

Philodendron Challenges and Solutions

Common Problems

Philodendron plants are generally low-maintenance, but they can face some issues in certain conditions. One common problem is suboptimal growth in low light conditions. Philodendrons are often grown as indoor jungle plants, but they prefer medium to bright indirect light. If your plant is not thriving, try moving it to a brighter spot.

Another issue often faced by Philodendron plants is root rot, which usually occurs due to overwatering. These plants prefer slightly moist but well-draining soil. To prevent root rot:

  • Allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings.
  • Use a well-draining soil mix.
  • Ensure the pot has drainage holes to allow excess water to escape.

Moreover, Philodendron plants prefer warm temperatures and higher humidity. Maintaining a room temperature of around 65-80Β°F (18-27Β°C) and a humidity level of at least 50% will help them grow healthily.

Toxicity and Precautions

Philodendron plants are known for their attractive foliage, but they also contain toxic substances, such as calcium oxalate, which can cause symptoms like irritation, swelling, and difficulty swallowing if ingested by humans or pets. It is essential to take certain precautions to mitigate these risks:

  • Place the plant in a location that is out of reach to children and pets.
  • Educate family members about the plant’s toxicity.
  • Avoid handling the plant with bare hands and wash hands thoroughly after touching the plant.

In summary, Philodendron plants can face challenges such as low light, root rot, and toxicity, but these issues can be addressed by providing proper light conditions, monitoring watering practices, and taking precautionary measures. Combining these solutions will help you cultivate a beautiful and healthy Philodendron plant, with its striking foliage and occasional white flowers, that will add elegance to any indoor environment.

Unique Philodendron Features

Variegation and Foliage Colors

Philodendrons are known for their unique variegation and foliage colors, making them highly prized among plant enthusiasts. Variegation in Philodendrons can occur in various patterns, including marbling, blocks, and streaks. Some popular variegated species are Philodendron ‘Pink Princess’ and Philodendron ‘White Knight’. When it comes to foliage colors, Philodendrons display a wide range, from deep greens to shades of red, silver, and even purple.

Plant care plays a significant role in maintaining the vibrancy of these colors and variegation. It is important to provide adequate light and humidity levels to ensure the plant’s foliage remains healthy and vibrant.

Rare and Unusual Philodendrons

In the world of Philodendrons, there are some rare and unusual species that stand out for their distinct characteristics or hard-to-find nature. These rare species tend to have unique features and growth habits. One such example is Philodendron megalophyllum, which has stamens with a unique feature not commonly seen in other species (Lacroix, unpublished data). Another species, Philodendron petraeum, exhibits morphological features that easily differentiate it from others (From open areas to forests? The evolutionary history of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae) using morphological data).

As these rare and unusual Philodendrons tend to be highly sought after, they often come with a higher price tag and may require more specialized care and attention. It is essential to research each rare Philodendron’s specific needs and preferences before adding them to your collection.

Philodendron megalophyllum

  • Mature height: 6-8 feet
  • Mature spread: 4-5 feet
  • Soil pH preference: 6.0-7.0
  • Water requirements: Moderate, allow the soil to dry slightly between watering
  • Alternative names: None

Philodendron petraeum

  • Mature height: 3-4 feet
  • Mature spread: 2-3 feet
  • Soil pH preference: 5.5-7.0
  • Water requirements: Moderate, keep the soil consistently moist
  • Alternative names: None
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